Newton included in the "Principia Mathematica" a scholium, or an appendix of explanatory notes, and in it he defined several important principles, including the idea of absolute time.Although he understood that clocks weren't perfect and measuring time was subject to human error, Newton believed in an absolute time that was similar to a universal, omnipotent God-like time, one that was the same for everyone, everywhere.Counting and correlation of varves have been used to measure the age of Pleistocene glacial deposits.Obsidian Hydration Dating This method is used to calculate ages in years by determining the thickness of rims (hydration rinds) produced by water vapor slowly diffusing into freshly chipped surfaces on artifacts made of obsidian or recent volcanic glass.Time will actually appear to move slower near massive objects, because space-time is warped by the weight. In 1962, scientists placed two atomic clocks at the bottom and top of a water tower.The clock at the bottom, the one closer to the massive center of the Earth, was running slower than the clock at the top. A further explanation of the bending of space-time and time dilation came in the form of a thought experiment called the twin paradox, devised in 1911 by French physicist Paul Langevin.This method can be applied to glasses 200 to 200,000 years old.Thermo Luminescence (TL) Dating This method is based on the phenomenon of natural ionizing radiation inducing free electrons in a mineral that can be trapped in defects of the mineral’s crystal lattice structure.
Dendochronologists can use this index to date accurately events and climatic conditions of the past 3000-4000 years.
Among the important theories Newton introduced were the laws of motion that govern the way objects move through space, including the law of universal gravitation, and the foundation for calculus.